Illnesses caused by pathogens, micro-organisms such as bacteria or viruses, that can be transmitted.
- infectious disease
- Methods of Transmission
- Diseases of Concern
- Hepatitis (A, B, C, D &E)
- Tuberculosis (TB)
- Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
- There are several other infectious diseases that you may be exposed to, including:-
- Signs and Symptoms
- When Signs And Symptoms Of Infectious Diseases Do Appear, They May Include:-
Methods of Transmission
- Direct contact:- Which occurs through contact with bodily fluids, contact through open wounds or exposed tissues, or contact with mucous membranes of the mouth, eyes or nose.
- Indirect contact:- Through airborne pathogens spread by tiny droplet sprayed during breathing, coughing or sneezing, or by way of contaminated objects, such as needles.
Diseases of Concern
- Although there are many infectious diseases, Three that is of greatest concern because they are life-threatening are:- hepatitis(a, b, c, d & e), TB & aids.
Hepatitis (A, B, C, D &E)
- Causes inflammation of the liver;
- Contracted through blood or bodily fluids;
- No cure can be deadly;
- Can live in dried blood for days.
- An effective vaccine is available.
- Infection found in the lungs & other tissues;
- Highly contagious- can be spread through the air;
- Take respiratory precautions
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
- Aids is named for a set of conditions that result when the immune system has been attacked by the HIV virus and rendered unable to combat infection adequately.
- Poses less risk than hepatitis or TB, as the virus does not survive well outside the human body.
- Transmission requires contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person.
There are several other infectious diseases that you may be exposed to, including:-
- Sexually transmitted diseases (STD)
- Common cold
Signs and Symptoms
- Patients contaminated with an infectious disease may not present with signs or symptoms.
- A major source of infectious transmission is the “chronic carrier”.
- Such a person can carry an infection for years without signs or symptoms.
When Signs And Symptoms Of Infectious Diseases Do Appear, They May Include:-
- The yellowish coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes
- Headache, chest or abdominal pain
- Coughing, shortness of breath
- Weight loss
Body Substance Isolation
- A strict form of infection control based on the premise that blood and bodily fluids are infectious
- Body substance isolation (BSI) consists of a combination of equipment & procedures that protect you from the bodily fluids of the patient
- With BSI precautions, it is possible to take care of patients safely, including those with infectious diseases.
- BSI precautions fall under three categories:-
1. Hand washing: the single most important thing you can do to prevent the spread of infection (even if wearing gloves)
2.Cleaning equipment: cleaning, disinfecting & sterilizing are related terms.
- Cleaning is simply washing an object with soap & water
- Disinfecting is cleaning plus using a chemical like alcohol or bleach to kill most of the pathogens
- Sterilizing is a process in which a chemical or another process ( such as superheated steam) is used to kill all microorganisms on the object
3. Using personal protective equipment (PPE):-
- You must always use PPE to protect against infection.
- This will keep you free from coming into contact with blood & other bodily fluids.
- PPE includes eye protection, gloves, gown & mask.
Personal Protective Equipment
The 5 most common components of PPE are:-
- Latex gloves
- Personal mask
- Eye protection
- CPR mask
- The following immunizations are recommended for People:-
- Tetanus prophylaxis (every 10 years)
- Hepatitis-a vaccine
- Hepatitis-b vaccine
- Influenza vaccine (every year)
- Rubella ( German measles)
“ALWAYS PRACTICE BODY SUBSTANCE ISOLATION SO THAT YOU DON’T GET INFECTED”